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Glossary of Terms

Aggregate:  Any of several hard materials such as crushed rock, sand, gravel, stone, slag, cinders or other inactive materials traditionally used as construction materials

Carbon Footprint: This is the total set of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions caused by an organisation, event or product. It is often expressed in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent of other GHGs, emitted

Greenhouse Gas (GHG): A greenhouse gas absorbs and emits light in the infrared range – if there are too many greenhouse gases in the environment the net effect is an increase in temperature

Fly Ash: This refers to the fine dust and ash residues that are created from the combustion of coal or other fuels, such as biomass, municipal waste, etc.  Gasplasma® fully vitrifies any ash into an inert product called Plasmarok®

Bottom Ash: This refers to the heavier dust and ash residues that are created from the combustion of coal or other fuels, such as biomass, municipal waste, etc.  Gasplasma® fully vitrifies any ash into an inert product called Plasmarok®

Gasification: Gasification is the process of converting the carbon content of materials, such as municipal waste, commercial waste or biomass, into a synthesis gas (syngas)

Gasifier: A device that converts the carbon content of materials into a synthesis gas

Synthesis gas (syngas): Synthesis gas, sometimes referred to as synthetic gas, contains hydrogen and carbon monoxide created by mixing steam or steam and oxygen with heated carbon, typically in a gasifier

Pyrolysis: The decomposition of materials using high temperatures in the absence of oxygen

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW): Municipal Solid Waste, or MSW, is a waste type that includes predominantly household waste, or domestic waste, with sometimes the addition of commercial wastes collected by a municipality within a given area

Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF): Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is a fuel prepared from wastes.  A full scale Gasplasma® plant can prepare its own RDF from the original waste feedstock

Plasma Converter: A plasma converter is a device used to produce a plasma arc, usually made up of concentric metal tubes to supply cooling water and plasma gas and a metal electrode for the arc to attach to

DC Electric Arc Furnace: A DC electric arc furnace is an alternate name for a Plasma Converter

Plasma: Plasma is known as the fourth phase or state of matter, the others being solid, liquid and gas.  Scientific theory currently says that plasma is the most common phase of matter in the universe.  Plasma is formed when a strong electrical current passes through a gas

Electrode: An electrode is the terminal through which an electrical current passes

Waste Recovery: This refers to the reclamation, collection and separation of materials from a waste stream

Zero Waste to landfill:  This is a philosophy that encourages the redesign of resource cradle to grave lifecycles and processes so that all products are reused

Landfill mining: Landfill mining is the process of excavating waste buried in landfill sites to recover valuable recyclable materials, using the non-recyclable materials to generate renewable power and recuperate the environment back to its natural state

Energy from waste: Energy from waste is the practice of creating a fuel from waste to use in energy production

Waste to energy: Waste to energy is another term for energy from waste

Ferrous metals: Ferrous metals mostly comprise of iron or its alloys

Non-ferrous metals: Non ferrous metals do not contain iron or its alloys – copper, brass, bronze, zinc

Advanced Conversion Technology: Advanced Conversion Technology is a term used to group a range of technologies that convert waste into energy

Advanced Thermal Treatment: Advanced Thermal Treatment is a term used to group a range of technologies that use pyrolysis and/or gasification to treat Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

Combined Heat and Power: Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is a term used to describe the generation of power and the recovery of useful residual heat

Renewables Obligation Certificate: A Renewables Obligation Certificate (ROC) is a green certificate issued to an accredited generator for eligible renewable electricity generated within the United Kingdom and supplied to customers within the United Kingdom by a licensed electricity supplier. One ROC is issued for each megawatt hour (MWh) of eligible renewable output generated.  Gasplasma® qualifies for two ROCs

Biofuel: Biofuels are a wide range of fuels that are in some way derived from biomass

Green fuel: Green fuel is another term used for biofuel

Plasmarok®: A the fully vitrified product of the Gasplasma® process defined as “fully recovered at the point it leaves the plasma arc” by the UK Environment Agency.  Plasmarok® is mechanically strong and environmentally inert

Vitrification: A process of converting a material into a glass-like amorphous solid which is free of any crystalline structure